Corns are small areas of hard, thickened skin, formed when the skin of the feet are under pressure. They are prone to developing on the tops and sides of the toes, because this is where shoes tend to squeeze the most. Corns are sometimes caused by hammertoes, which is a bent toe that rubs against the skin. They can be treated at home, with the use of over-the-counter medicine and regular exfoliating. However, some stubborn corns may require the care of a podiatrist for removal. Brain, spinal cord, or nerve injury (especially in the case of claw toe). Examples include stroke , cerebral palsy , and degenerative disc disease A bunion is an abnormal, bony growth or bump on the joint at the base of the big toe. As the joint becomes enlarged, it crowds the other toes and is pushed outward, causing pain. Bunion treatments vary according to how severe the bunion is and how much pain it causes. Options in treatment range from conservative lifestyle recommendations for mild cases to surgery for more severe bunions. For bunions that require surgery, there are several procedures available that have proven to be quite successful. Your feet may get wider and longer as you grow older. Each time you purchase a new pair of shoes, have your feet sized. Metatarsaigia is experienced as a shooting or sharp pain, accompanied by inflammation in the ball of the foot. Icing your foot several times a day and doing toe lifts and stretches will help. It is also wise to avoid sports. To prevent further problems try using arch supports and/or shock absorbing insoles. Bunions are formed when the sideways (transverse) arch falls. Then it pushes the sides of the joints outwards where they rub against the inside of the shoes. This builds up a callous. Give the exercises a try. But if you still have no improvement in your pain after a week or so , you should see your doctor. Ingrown toenails are often caused by importer trimming. It can also be caused by repetitive trauma to the nail, tight shoes, and hereditary leading to the inflammation of the skin around the nail borders allowing the nail border penetrate the skin and infection can set. Most often, the attempt to remove the ingrown can lead to more infection. If your nail continues to grow inward despite proper trimming, please contact us for an appointment. Dr. Kelly might suggest Nail Restoration before any medical or surgical treatments. Examine your feet weekly for any dry spots, blisters, calluses or anything that looks unusual. Do this daily if you are diabetic For those affected by diabetes, proper foot care and maintenance is essential. The disease decreases blood flow, particularly to the feet. Diabetics must continuously monitor their feet to avoid infections, otherwise they could face amputation. When inspecting your feet, look for wounds, bruises, blisters, ulcers and ingrown nails. It is recommended that you contact your podiatrist for instructions on how to properly care for your feet. Treatment for hammertoe involves wearing shoes with soft and roomy toe boxes so there is less friction against the toes. Toe exercises to stretch and strengthen the muscles are also recommended. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to correct the condition. Over-the-counter corns removers must be avoided. These home treatments have acid in them, which can burn the skin and cause infection. Once an ulceration has started, every effort must be made to reduce the pressure to the area or it will not heal. Special shoe inserts, called orthotics, are useful in reducing abnormal pressure on the bottom of the foot in areas of calluses or ulcerations. There are also several different topical medications that are used for the treatment of ulcerations. Treatment should be guided and supervised by a physician. Special cushions are available at drugstores for plantar warts. These pads help relieve any pressure and pain from the warts. The first steps most doctors recommend is to ice and elevate the toe at home, and to purchase shoes with wider toe boxes. Additionally, callus covers or mole skin can be bought at a grocery store to help decrease irritation on the skin. Night splints can also be purchased to try to change the angle of the foot. If these at-home interventions do not work, then more aggressive treatment can be rendered in a doctor's office. Some cases will need to be repaired with surgery, while others can just be monitored for changes. Some people may develop chronic gouty arthritis, but others may have no further attacks. Those with chronic arthritis develop joint deformities and loss of motion in the joints. They will have joint pain and other symptoms most of the time. Tophi are lumps below the skin around joints or in other places. They may drain chalky material. Tophi usually develop only after a patient has had the disease for many years. Your doctor will recommend that you take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen, or indomethacin as soon as your symptoms begin. You will need to take prescription-strength medicines for 4 - 10 days.